환원운동사 영어특강(The Church in the Bible and in History)
이 자료는 신시내티 크리스천 대학교 및 대학원의 총장을 역임했던 하비 C. 브림 2세(Harvey C. Bream, Jr.) 목사가 1989년 9월 10일부터 13일까지 총4회에 걸쳐서 플로리다 올랜도에 위치한 사우스이스트 그리스도의 교회에서 행한 환원운동사 강연 내용입니다. 테이프를 자주 사용하여 상태가 나빠진데다가 용량이 워낙 크기 때문에 음질을 낮출 수밖에 없었지만, 하비 C. 브림의 뛰어난 스피치와 정확하고 빠른 발음의 환원 운동사 강연을 영어로 직접 들어 보실 수 있는 기회를 마련해 보았습니다.
여기에 소개한 강연 텍스트는 “제3강, 환원운동, 하나의 새로운 시작<The Restoration Movement: "A New Beginning">의 전문으로써 그리스도의 교회의 성격을 올바르게 밝혀주는 매우 중요한 내용입니다. 그리고 이 영어 텍스트는 조동호 목사가 녹음을 듣고 받아 적어 옮긴 것이므로 오류가 다수 있을 수 있음을 밝혀 둡니다. 잘못된 곳이 발견되면 즉시 연락 주시기 바랍니다.
오디오 파일 : http://kccs.info/rm11.htm
오디오 파일 : http://kccs.info/rm3-harveybream.mp3
영문 텍스트 전문 : 상단의 링크에서 다운로드 하시면 됩니다. PDF파일입니다.
G. God’s Book proclaimed for the people rather than as interpreted by the priests.
H. Augsburg Confession of Faith - 1530.
IV. Other Reformers:
On Sunday evening we talked about how all began. And we looked at the church commencing on the Day of Pentecost and its early history and the church that we're endeavoring to restore today. And we studied the six primary characteristics of the New Testament Church that we endeavor to restore today. Then we came to the issue last night of "What Went Wrong with the Church?" And we studied the great apostacy of the Dark Ages and Medieval Period about our world history and the many departures from New Testament doctrine and practice and how they were brought into being by subsequent church councils and decrees of popes and such like. Comminating in the selling of indulgences by Pope Leo X and effort to complete the project, the building St. Peters of Rome, which act caused a violent reaction within the church itself, a protest against this repugnant practice of selling indulgences, that protest in a body was primarily in the person of Martin Luther. And we studied last evening also the tremendous impact that this man made as on at day of October 31. All these averse comminated when he tacked "95 Theses" to the church door of the Cathedral of Wittenberg and challenged anyone of the entire Roman Catholic Church debating him on public platform on anyone of all 95 these propositions. But the Reformation swept down into Switzerland. That's what we take up tonight in the road back which is the title of this current series that we are now in.
A. Switzerland-Zwingli (1484-1531).
1. Crusade against images.
The two main reformers in Switzerland were men by the names of John Zwingli and John Calvin. Now Zwingli was a soldier. In fact eventually he died in a battle. But it was Zwingli who with his men would march into the church buildings take hold of these icons and images, drag them out of buildings and smash them in the middle in the streets and front of the church buildings. Of course had it make Zwingli a very popular fellow in that particular day.
2. Emphasized that all Christians should meet on the first day for communion.
But Zwingli made a very important contribution to the Reformation. It was Zwingli that insisted that the Lord's Supper be observed again every Lord's Day (? 지금도 그렇지만 미사는 그 자체가 성만찬 예배였으나 신도들에게 잔이 주어지지 않았고, 고해성사를 받지 못한 신도들은 떡조차 받지 않았다. 설상가상으로 츠빙글리는 연중 주의 만찬의 시행횟수를 제한하여 개신교 예배를 기도회로 전락시킨 최초의 인물이 되었다.) and the people should have accessed to the cup as well as to the loaf. That prior privilege has been taking away some centuries earlier by the decrees of church councils and popes.
One of the things that Zwingli did is not well known for this but it can be traced back to him. It was Zwingli that primarily equated baptism with a meritorious work which emphasis in the Protestant Reformation is carried down to this very hour. Many people would equate baptism as a work, meritorious work which, of course, Bible does not say. We do not believe it in our effort to restore the church after New Testament ideal. But this again you have to understand the context which, all these great men who had attested a strong faith to withstand Rome, that they came out of this background of a strong emphasis upon salvation by penances and sacraments and meritorious works, and so in the reaction to anything that a man could do they construed anything that man can do as his effort to earn a merited salvation. Therefore, they equated baptism with this type of work.
B. Calvin to Geneva in 1536.
But Calvin perhaps is the man who had the most pervasive influence in the Protestant Reformation up to this very present hour. Now most of the thinks, that Calvin believed in practice, had been earlier taught and introduced by Augustine whom we discussed last night in the apostacy, one of the early church Fathers who was one who began to teach the Doctrine of Original Sin, the fact that the taint and the guilt as well as the consequence of Adam's sin passed onto all men. They wanted the baby who was born of born in sin. Luther believed that. Calvin believed that.
1. Predestination (election).
Also he believed the result of original sin, the total hereditary depravity of man. He believed man, because he was so corrupted, because of original sin in his very nature, and he was in incapable of his responding in faith through the Gospel to one who preached to his heart. We called that man's incapability, man's inability. And again you have to understand the background. They're believing that nothing a man can do, a man can do anything to a fact, his salvation. But because of the Doctrine of Original Sin and Total Hereditary Depravity, it then was that which brought into existence the Doctrine of Absolute Sovereignty of God. Now Calvin like Luther in his overreaction against the repugnant doctrine of salvation by meritorious works man can do to earn a merited salvation swung to the other extreme like Luther in his swing tacked out a word ONLY to salvation by faith. And he came off salvation by faith ONLY. So now here comes Calvin. He begins to stress the sovereignty of God which by the way like faith is a great long neglected doctrine of scripture. But in his overreaction he began to stress what he called the absolute sovereignty of God. He said, "God's sovereignty is so absolute. There are men to eternal destiny, heaven or hell, predetermined by God before a man was ever born, and after a man was born, nothing he can do can alter God's predetermination." This is what we call Calvinistic Predestination. That, however, caused a problem. if because of man's original, because of Adam's original sin passed on all men, then men became thus totally depraved and were incapable responding in faith to Gospel preached, and a God's sovereignty was so absolute that he predetermined before a man was ever born whether he is saved or lost, then a man, after he is born, could do nothing to alter God's predetermination. And then question is this. How can I know whether I've been predetermined by God to be saved or lost? How can I know whether I am among the elect or among the damned? So Calvin taught that he took the operation of the Holy Spirit of God upon the soul of the man to bring him to repentance. And thus in a position received, gifted faith is, what we called, Doctrine of God's Irresistible Grace. Therefore, if a man had this experience to receive this operation of the Holy Spirit upon his heart, then he knew he had been predetermined by God to be among the elect. But if he never received this experience, he knew that he'd been predetermined by God to be among the damned to be lost. And other he could do could alter God's predetermination. It is very fatalistic doctrine.
2. Perseverance of the saints.
Of course then if this were true, that would sustain the propagation of another doctrine. If God in the absolute sovereignty predetermined your eternal destiny before you were ever born, then if you received this Irresistible Grace, then obviously once in grace always in grace. You can never be lost. Once saved always saved because God had predetermined and you received that seal through this operation of the Holy Spirit. So that's the doctrine, we called, Perseverance of the Saints. So you see when you allow a false premise. How easy it is to go logically upon it.
C. Henry VIII
1. Split with Rome over divorce of Catherine and marriage to Anne Boleyn.
Well the Reformation now took a different twist. It comes upon in England. You all heard King Henry VIII. King Henry VIII had a problem. I refer to as an eye problem. I call it the roaming eye. What he was doing was looking over the women crop. And he was tired of Catherine. Catherine also had not given him an heir to the crown. And he had his eye on Anne Boleyn. And he wanted to divorce Catherine so he can marry Anne. But he was going to do a proper. So King Henry VIII petitioned the pope of Rome for permission to divorce Catherine so he can marry Anne. Oh what happened to the pope wrote back to Henry and in the fact he said, "I'm sorry, Henry. I'm not having your party your shenanigans. You might go to forget all about Anne. You're going to stay hitched to Catherine. Oh Henry he got a back up. He said, "I'll just show you, who's who." Not only Henry VIII proceeded to divorce Catherine and go ahead and marry Anne Boleyn but he then also proceeded to divorce the Church in England from the Church of Rome. And he established the Church of England and made himself all heirs to the crown, titular heads of the Church of England which to this very day Queen Elisabeth is the titular head of Church of England.
2. Church of England (Anglican) 1530 (in America - Episcopal).
Of course, after the American Revolution, there is no way in America that it could refer to it as the Church of England. So today what you know as the Episcopal Church for the High Church Episcopal is the counterpart of the Church of England. Oh we sometimes refer to as the Anglican Church.
3. King James and Authorized English translation - 1611.
When King James came to the throne, he was alarmed because he saw the Church of England dripping back in the union with the Church of Rome. And he figured the reason for this drip was a fact that they were still reading all the Masses in Latin. So King James called together the scholars of the Church of England and had them bring into existence and authorized English translation of the scripture. And I brought the copy with me tonight to show you folks. I've got it right here. I imagine you all one of copy is called the King James translation authorized in 1611 AD
D. Scotland - John Knox - emphasis on the presbytery.
Now, however, the Reformation kept down moving and swept up into the Scotland. Now the main reformer here in Scotland is a man by the name of John Knox. And John Knox was resisting and rebelling against dictatorial oversight by the religious hierarchy the priesthood. And he took his scripture because now the printing press had been invented and the first publication of the printing press was the Bible. And he took his Bible and began the study to see if he could find in the New Testament any justification of this type of authority or government in the local church. To his amazement he studied and studied and studied nowhere, and nowhere, in the New Testament couldn't find this type of priesthood mentioned at all. If that only priesthood he found in the local churches was the priesthood of all believers. The New Testament scriptures taught that every Christian is a priest before God. And the only government he could find in the local church resided in it, what he called, the presbyters. Now he got that presbyter from the Greek word, 'presbuteros.' And it was simply English side or Anglo side that Greek word, 'presbuteros,' came up the word presbyter. It's the word we translated, elder. And because of John Knox's emphasis upon a restoration of the presbyters never functioned in the local churches, that's how they came into existence today what we referred to as the Presbyterian denomination from the emphasis upon restoration of the presbyters and their function in the local churches.
E. John Wesley - 1729.
1. Experience-centered religion, cottage prayer meetings, revivals.
But now, lo and behold, another strange twist in the Reformation. It moves right on back down in the England again. Now there was effort to reform, to reform Church of England. Because what they're beginning to say is this, "You don't worship God through liturgy, through ceremonies, through external forms. You have to worship God. If you're going to worship God meaningfully, you have to have a personal experience with Christ." They began to stress, what they called, an experiential or a heartfelt religion.
The two main implementals of this thrust, reformation thrust in the Church of England were two brothers that you all know well, John and Charles Wesley. And John and Charles Wesley in effort to implement this reform began to institute what they called cottage prayer meetings. They also then began to initiate what they refer to as revivals.
They also formulated religious exercises. They would be begun through throughout the day periodically. And because they used all these various methods and were very methodically their reform efforts. The nickname attached the movement and that's how they came into existence. You all heard me what we refer to today as the Methodist denomination because they were very methodical and used all these methods. And at this point in time John Wesley deplored the use of the name, in fact, the acts. Those who were in the movement to desist from using the name and precedent simply used name, Christian, the Bible name. And both in this heritage today are not aware of the fact that John Wesley lived and died a member of the Church of England. It was not John Wesley's effort at all trying to start another group. His effort was to try to reform the Church of England.
V. Discovery of America just preceding the Reformation - 1492.
A. Escape from the Inquisition sweeping Europe.
At just this juncture, of course, Reformation Movement was sweeping across Europe like wild prey fire. And then the desperate effort to withstand tide also then at the same time began to sweep across Europe the bloody inquisition. If anybody was found in possession of the copy of the Bible or they were found to be a part of any of these various reform movements, they can be arrested, imprisoned, beaten, even burned at stake. And at this very critical juncture in the history of the church, there had transpired not many years prior to the Protestant Reformation any event that offered the entire course of our world history. And you're all familiar with that famous date 1492
Here you see the Holy Spirit at work. You cannot understand history If you don't acknowledge the hand of God in the affairs of man. And the new world had been discovered by Columbus. And now there was great emigration to the shores of new world by those who were seeking freedom from not only political but religious bondage and pressure. But a strange phenomenon took place. Now were the shackles of the state church having been stricken off
B. The multiplicity of denominations being built around particular doctrinal emphases being neglected by others. The sense in which we are Presbyterian, Episcopal, Baptist, congregational, Methodist, catholic, protestant, etc., but with the plea to be simply and ONLY Christian.
Now having accessed to Word of God for the first time after centuries and centuries, suddenly a multiplicity of sects and cults began to spring up
C. The divisions perpetuated in America:
1. The influences of Calvinism.
2. The propagation of creeds.
3. The subsequent erection of almost insurmountable sectarian walls, the warring camps, the party, divisive spirit.
Many of them were building themselves from long neglected Bible doctrines. But sometime in the exclusion of other Bible doctrines until incredibly as you watched the worse of sectarianism began to be raised higher and higher and higher until they became almost insurmountable
4. Providing an occasion and spawning ground for infidelity.
And an unbelievably bitter and vitriolic and warning spirit began to prevail among the professing believers in Jesus Christ. And this tragic blight of division that it now come on fast in some upon Christendom provided a perfect spawning ground for the seeds of infidelity.
Because also in the middle of the 18th century there came to the shores of new world what in educational circles we refer to as Prussian Rationalism, Old German Rationalism. Now Rationalism is a philosophy. It is the most prevalent philosophy, the most pervasive philosophy in all our institutions of higher education in America today. Philosophy, Rationalism is the philosophy. It says, "The mind of man or human reason is the sole source of knowledge and it alone is the ultimate core of the peels." You see by the very nature Rationalism repudiates or rejects the idea of the supernatural. It would have to reject the idea of God, reject the idea of God's revelation in the man in His Word of Bible; it would have to reject the possibility of miracles including the virgin birth, the bodily resurrection and such like. And rationalist approached divided Christendom with this statement which was devastating. And this continued to be such to this very hour. They said this. If all these denominations are here all these religious groups, all had same Bible, and they all said that they believed in same Jesus, and they all tell you that they're preaching the same Gospel, then how do you count the fact that they're so horribly divided, warning among themselves, and out here teaching and preaching mutually exclusive and contradictory doctrines? Oh the man in the street was not introducing the theological hairsplitting. And that just makes good sense to it. And so cynicism and skepticism, agnosticism, infidelity and atheism began to run rampant. Across our western frontier was the expanse of the tragically divided Christendom. Hear me tonight my friends. Division in the church today is the single biggest deterrent to success for soul winning evangelism in our world. And if you don't believe that, you have never tried to win many people and win many people to the Lord Jesus Christ.
So this was sad thing that came upon Christendom. So it is. There was all this background we begin to understand why a Restoration Movement appeared on the scene and why there was a desperate need for a plea for the unity of all believers in Christ upon scriptural ground.
A. The Reformation did much good. We will not deny that. Nobody would deny that. But it failed by just treating the symptoms and not the cause. It did not go back far enough. The endeavor was to reform the corrupt rather than to restore the original.
B. Restoration involves going back beyond denominationalism with all of its human encumbrances, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, back to the very fountainhead, the church after the New Testament ideal.
1. It means taking the Bible as the only and all sufficient rules of both faith as well as practice and restoring the absolute authority and Lordship of Christ as head of the church.
2. It involves a “search for the ancient order of things,” and “walking again in the old paths” of Christ and his disciples.